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EUBIE BLAKE, RAGTIME COMPOSER, DIES 5 DAYS AFTER 100TH BIRTHDAY

Five days after his 100th birthday was celebrated with gala performances of his music, Eubie Blake, the composer and pianist whose career covered a span from the ragtime era in the 19th century to the contemporary Broadway theater a year ago, died yesterday at his home in Brooklyn.

Mr. Blake's lawyer, Elliot Hoffman, said the composer died shortly after noon. Mr. Blake, who had suffered a bout of pneumonia, was too ill to attend Monday's birthday celebrations but he heard a concert in his honor at the Shubert Theater by way of a special telephone hookup.

He also heard congratulatory telegrams from President Reagan, Governor Cuomo, the songwriter Ira Gershwin and the pianist Andre Watts, among others.

Mr. Blake helped to bring the first black musical comedy to Broadway, ''Shuffle Along,'' in 1921; wrote songs that have found a permanent place in pop music, ''I'm Just Wild About Harry'' and ''Memories of You,'' and teamed with Noble Sissle in one of the top vaudeville acts of the 20's.

Greatest Fame in Old Age

Despite these successes, however, Mr. Blake achieved his greatest fame in his old age when, at the age of 86, he emerged from 23 years of retirement to become the leading personality in the rediscovery of ragtime - a bright-eyed, ebullient performer whose talents scarcely seemed to have been affected by the years. Shortly before Mr. Blake's 90th birthday, McCandlish Phillips, writing in The New York Times, described him this way:

''Mr. Blake, who is as robust as a rooster, stood through nearly all of a two-and-a-half-hour interview yesterday in his home on Stuyvesant Avenue in Brooklyn, danced through part of it, kept darting to the keyboard to illustrate a point and finished with a half-hour narrated concert in ragtime, pop, Broadway, classical and waltz tempos.

''He is today a lively, volatile, adamant and noisy character, full of decided opinions and not at all afraid to pronounce them with foot-stomping, fist-smacking emphasis.'' Admonished Over Long Fingers

Even in his 90's, his fingers still moved over the keyboard with astonishing agility and accuracy. They were not only strong fingers, but also remarkably long and delicate - so long that he could span up to 12 keys or, roughly, 11 inches; the best most other pianists could do was 9 or 10 keys.

Mr. Blake liked to remind people that his parents had been born slaves. ''I'm proud of my heritage,'' he said. ''I want everyone to know that I came from slavery and went to the top of my profession.'' His father, John Sumner Blake, a longshoreman who had fought in the Union Army, had been taught to write in a fine Spencerian hand by a plantation owner's daughter. His mother, Emily, a laundress, was an extremely religious woman. ''She had Jesus in her pocket,'' her son was fond of saying. Youngest of 11 Children

James Hubert Blake was the youngest of their 11 children and the only one to survive infancy. Born in Baltimore on Feb. 7, 1883, he was 6 when he found the key to his future - an organ in a downtown department store.

While his mother was shopping, young Eubie, as he was known then, poked out tunes on the keys and so impressed the store manager that, over his mother's protests, a $75 organ was sent to their home, to be paid for at 25 cents a week.

He was soon taking lessons from a music teacher who lived next door but, although Mrs. Blake had stipulated that no ''ungodly music'' would be played on their organ, her son soon discovered ragtime.

At the age of 15, still wearing short pants, he surreptitiously got a job as a pianist in Aggie Sheldon's sporting house - $3 for a seven-day week and tips. On to Saloons and Clubs

After a neighbor, who recognized the boy's playing style as she passed Aggie Sheldon's house, reported his suspected activity to his mother, she sternly turned him over to his father for disciplining. His father, who made $9 a week, asked the boy how much he was paid.

''Three dollars a week,'' he replied, ''but I get extras.'' ''I took him upstairs to my room,'' Mr. Blake later recalled. ''Under the carpet I had almost $100 stashed, because I was too young to spend it. My father didn't say anything for a moment. 'Well, son,' he finally said, 'I'll have to talk to your mother.' ''

The young pianist moved on to saloons and clubs and, in 1899, the year Scott Joplin's ''Maple Leaf Rag'' was published, composed his first piano rag, ''Charleston Rag.''

In 1906, when Joe Gans returned in triumph to Baltimore from his championship fight with Battling Nelson in Goldfield, Nev., he opened the Goldfield Hotel and Mr. Blake began an engagement there that continued for seven winters while, in the summers, he played in Atlantic City at the Bucket of Blood, the Belmont or the Boathouse. With Help From Sophie Tucker

''The Boathouse was jumping all the time,'' Mr. Blake remembered. ''I'd go to work at 9 P.M. and I might get off at 11 or 12 the next morning. You had to play for people to dance, and there was no one there but me - no bass, no drums, just me all night long unless Big Head Wilbur or Cat Eye Harry might stop in to help me out.''

By 1915, Mr. Blake was playing piano in Joe Porter's Serenaders at River View Park in Baltimore when Noble Sissle, a singer from Indianapolis, joined the band. They began writing songs together. They took their first effort, ''It's All Your Fault,'' to Sophie Tucker, who was playing at the Maryland Theater.

''She liked it,'' Mr. Blake said, ''put it in her show and put us on the map.'' The following year, the two songwriters joined James Reese Europe's Society Orchestra in New York, working as a piano-and-vocal team and writing their own material - thus, Mr. Blake noted, ''unconsciously becoming writers of a musical-comedy form of song.'' 'Shuffle Along' in 1921

After World War I, Sissle and Blake went into vaudeville as the Dixie Duo. They were one of the first black acts to perform without burnt cork and were always dressed elegantly. In 1921, with another black vaudeville team, Flournoy Miller and Aubrey Lyles, Sissle and Blake devised a show that they hoped would put black performers into white theaters in a dignified way.

''Shuffle Along,'' which opened May 23, 1921, at the 63d Street Theater, was built on a mixture of the two vaudeville acts, billed as ''a musical melange.''

Its score, written by Sissle and Blake, included ''I'm Just Wild About Harry'' and ''Love Will Find a Way.'' The cast included Florence Mills, Josephine Baker and Paul Robeson.

''Shuffle Along'' ran for 14 months before going on tour. In 1923, Sissle and Blake wrote the score for another black musical, ''Chocolate Dandies,'' and the following year contributed a dozen songs to a white musical, ''Elsie.'' Retired at 63

After an eight-month tour of Europe in 1925, the team broke up. Mr. Sissle decided to remain in Europe, where he formed an orchestra, and Mr. Blake returned to the United States and teamed with Andy Razaf to write a score for ''Blackbirds of 1930,'' which included one of his best-known songs, ''Memories of You.'' He continued to compose with other collaborators and, during World War II, worked in U.S.O. shows.

Mr. Blake's first wife, Avis Lee, whom he had married in 1910, died in 1939. In 1945 he married Marion Gant Tyler, a one-time showgirl, who owned a house in Brooklyn that became their home.

''I got the coop with the chicken,'' Mr. Blake liked to say with a sly grin. Mr. Blake's second wife died last June. Mr. Blake had no children. A year after his second marriage, Mr. Blake retired at the age of 63 and began studying the Schillinger method of composition at New York University. For the next 23 years, he spent most of his time either composing or transcribing in the Schillinger system songs that he had committed to memory but had never written down.

Then, at the age of 86, he erupted out of retirement as a result of a retrospective record album, ''The 86 Years of Eubie Blake,'' that he was induced to make by John Hammond, the record producer who had discovered Billie Holiday and Count Basie. Started Record Company

Mr. Blake was suddenly in constant demand for concerts and appearances at colleges where he charmed audiences with his bubbling vitality - he always ran onto the stage and off - his store of colorful anecdotes and his performances of his own rags and songs and other musical memories.

In 1972, Mr. Blake started a record company, Eubie Blake Records, for which he was the principal performer, and continued to write and publish rags.

During the 1970's, he performed at the annual Newport Jazz Festival seven times. In 1978, an adaptation of his 1921 musical, ''Shuffle Along,'' was presented in an Off Broadway theater and was received so warmly that, expanded to draw on a wider range of his songs, it opened on Broadway later that year as ''Eubie.'' Mr. Blake did not appear in the show but it added to his fame and aura as an unusually active and contemporary nonagenarian.

Brendan Gill, writing in The New Yorker, said that it ''marches swiftly and with unabated zest from one eye-dazzling song and dance number to the next.''

In October 1981, Mr. Blake was awarded the Medal of Freedom in a ceremony at the White House. He made his last professional appearance in 1982, one week before his 99th birthday.

The funeral will be private. A memorial service is planned for 1 P.M. Friday at St. Peter's Lutheran Church, at 54th Street and Lexington Avenue.

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